EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

With the growth of the World Wide Web, internet monopolies have collected and stored enormous amounts of user data. With the advent of big data and Artificial Intelligence (AI), they can enjoy a data monopoly and enjoy substantial business benefits. Meanwhile, besides failing to obtain dividends from their data, users also bear the risk of infringement on personal privacy and misuse of personal data.

PlatON Network is committed to creating the next generation of a privacy-preserving computing and data exchange network. Grounded in blockchain technology and modern cryptography, PlatON builds a new computing paradigm to preserve the privacy of the client’s data, with no need to depend on third parties for collaborative computing and to verify the integrity of the results.

PlatON uses various modern cryptographic algorithms to implement computational capacity expansion schemes for non-interactive proofs and implements a Concurrent Byzantine Fault Tolerance (CBFT) consensus mechanism. 

The network’s native token, $LAT,  provides several utilities to its holders. The total supply of LAT tokens is non-finite, and the supply increases annually via inflation.

The project is based in Singapore, a country where the government exercises caution by seeking to identify the risks involved with cryptocurrencies. 

The project’s founding team has a strong entrepreneurial and technical background. Additionally, multiple investors are backing the project.

PlatON is operating on its mainnet, evolving with several milestones that still need to be reached.

Our researchers gave PlatON a final rating of C. The breakdown of this rating is available at the end of this report.

 

PRODUCT & COMPANY DESCRIPTION

Introduction to PlatON

PlatON is building a decentralized and collaborative Artificial Intelligence (AI) network and global brain by combining blockchain and privacy-preserving computation technologies to drive the democratization of AI for safe artificial general intelligence.

The project wants to create the infrastructure for autonomous AI agents and their collaboration, expedite the evolution and emergence of advanced AI, and explore the path to general AI.

Additionally, the project’s team wishes to extend the power of AI to whoever requires it via PlatON’s decentralized network and open-source software tools to create the best AI technology accessible to the masses.

The plan is to achieve this overall goal in three stages:

 

 

The platform’s notable features include:

  • Modern cryptographic algorithms like Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKP) and Secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC).
  • A Layer 1 consensus network based on Ethereum.
  • Support for mainstream programming languages such as Solidity, Java, C ++, and Python (ref. 2).

PlatON’s ecosystem includes these elements:

  • ATON Wallet

ATON is a mobile wallet for the PlatON Network. It can be used to send and receive LAT tokens, monitor account balances, and view the user’s transaction history. In addition, the wallet enables users to delegate $LATs to validators and get rewarded (ref. 3). Over 10k devices have downloaded the wallet as per Google Play statistics (ref. 4). The user manual is available here.

  • LAT Token

$LAT is PlatON Network’s native token. Users must pay a small $LAT fee when transferring or using a PlatON application. The fee incentivizes the nodes to verify and process user transactions (ref. 5).

Interested readers can read more about the economic mechanisms of $LAT here.

  • Validators

All $LAT holders jointly select validators to maintain and develop the PlatON network. Out of the 201 nodes, those with the most votes will become alternative nodes, from which Verifiable Random Function (VRF) will randomly select 43 validators to participate in the management of the whole PlatON network. The responsibilities of validators are:

  1. Maintaining the PlatON Network and nodes.
  2. Producing and validating the blocks.
  3. Decision-making and proposal voting (ref. 6).

The basic requirements for becoming a validator are available here.

Two whitepapers have been published, available here and here. The Whitepaper 1.0 was published in 2018 and is more technical, while the Whitepaper 2.0 was published in 2021 and is more accessible to the average reader. The whitepapers do not discuss the tokenomics of the project in-depth. Additional details not included in the whitepapers are available here. There is also a blue paper on economics available here. This paper provides an introduction to PlatON’s economic design.

The mainnet was released on April 30, 2021 (ref. 7). The block explorer is available here.

Success Factors

Based on our understanding, the project has several success factors. These factors are listed below:

  • A team with a solid technical and entrepreneurial background.
  • Support for mainstream programming languages.
  • The growth of the AI blockchain market.
  • Financial backing by multiple investors.

 

MARKET CONDITIONS AND COMPETITION

Market Conditions

AI running atop a blockchain might significantly enhance machine learning capabilities. Nevertheless, AI in the blockchain or Web 3.0 context is a relatively uncharted area, and the existing solutions have not yet managed to gain noticeable traction (ref. 8). ARK Invest’s Big Ideas 2022 Report indicates that innovation platforms like AI and blockchain are evolving and converging (ref. 9).

The sector of cryptocurrencies connected to the AI industry as of July 11 has a market cap of $736.59 million, representing 0.08% of all cryptocurrency sectors (ref. 10).

It is challenging to estimate the exact size of the AI market as different sources list different figures. According to one source, the global AI market was estimated to be valued at around $327.5 billion in 2021. Meanwhile, other estimates affirm the global AI market in 2021 to be worth around $87.04 billion, expecting it to reach $1,597.1 billion by 2030, with a CAGR of 38.1% from 2022 to 2030 (ref. 11).

By 2027, the Blockchain AI market is projected to be worth $785.8 million, with a CAGR of 20.71% (ref. 12).

Competition

The Whitepaper 2.0 has a table illustrating the competitive landscape of PlatON.

 

PlatON Competitive Landscape. Source: Whitepaper 2.0

 

As a Layer 1 platform, PlatON competes with other Layer 1 platforms, including Ethereum. PlatON is also in competition with other projects with privacy-preserving computation, such as Oasis, Secret Network (formerly Enigma) (ref. 13), and Phala (ref. 14).

 

How is the project different from its competitors?

 

These features differentiate PlatON from the competition: 

  • Cryptographic algorithm: On top of the SHA256 hash algorithm and ECDSA signature algorithm that has been in use since Bitcoin, PlatON also adds Boneh–Lynn–Shacham (BLS) as an aggregate signature for consensus, VRF for the random selection of validators, and ZKP and Homomorphic Encryption (HE) for privacy-preserving ends.
  • P2P network: Instead of using the popular devp2p and libp2p libraries, PlatON utilizes RELOAD (REsource LOcation And Discovery) protocol as defined by RFC6940 and ReDiR (Recursive Distributed Rendezvous) service discovery mechanism as defined by RFC7374 (ref. 15).
  • DAPP SDK: Grounded in Ethereum’s WEB3 (supports Javascript, Java, Python, and Swift languages) and JSON RPC, PlatON’s DAPP SDK is modified to better tailor to the functions of PlatON. Additionally, the project claims to have added a more efficient GRPC-based interface.
  • MPC technology based on cryptography: PlatON uses a different privacy technology route as it uses MPC technology based on cryptography, while Enigma, Oasis, and Phala mainly use trusted execution environments (TEE) technology. PlatON is also a complete and independent blockchain network (ref. 16).

 

TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

Product

PlatON is an open-source project and is open to developers. A development guide for developers is available here. There is a developer bounty program to engage the community developers in the design and development of the core infrastructure (ref. 17). The GitHub instance is available here.

The overall architecture of PlatON is illustrated below.

 

PlatON overall technical architecture. Source: Whitepaper 2.0

 

  • Rosetta (privacy-preserving AI Framework)

The focus of Rosetta is to offer AI solutions to safeguard privacy-preserving without requiring expertise in trusted execution environments, cryptography, and federated learning.

Rosetta integrates standard privacy-preserving computation technologies, including

trusted execution environments, cryptography, and federated learning. Furthermore, it offers a privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm library, such as regression, decision tree, clustering, privacy-preserving deep learning algorithm library such as RNN and CNN, and a privacy-preserving statistical analysis algorithm library.

Rosetta can be merged with common machine learning and AI frameworks like TensorFlow, Flink, Pytorch, and Spark. Rosetta presently reuses the TensorFlow API and implements the combination with TensorFlow, enabling the shift of legacy TensorFlow code to a privacy-preserving approach with minimum changes (ref. 18).

 

Privacy-preserving AI development Framework. Source: Whitepaper 2.0

 

  • Underlying Protocol and Privacy-preserving Computation Protocol on Layer 1

PlatON’s Layer 1 basic protocol is adapted to privacy-preserving AI and privacy-preserving computation. It features:

 

 

Underlying Protocol and Privacy-preserving Computation Protocol on Layer 1. Source: Whitepaper 2.0

 

  • Metis (privacy-preserving computation network)

Metis aggregates the algorithms, data, and computing power needed for computing in a decentralized manner to establish a secure privacy-preserving computation paradigm. It features:

 

 

Privacy-preserving computation network Metis. Source: Whitepaper 2.0

 

  • Moirae (decentralized AI cloud platform)

On the one hand, Moirae offers developers a one-stop AI development platform and a one-stop multifaceted modeling process to assist users in rapidly building and deploying models and managing full-cycle AI work. On the other hand, Moirae is an open AI market. Developers can find training models and data sets, interact with other AI models or paying users, and launch AI models. It features:

 

 

Privacy-preserving AI platform Moirae. Source: Whitepaper 2.0

 

  • Horae (collaborative AI network)

The focus of Horae is to use self-organizing group intelligence to create a network more significant than the sum of its parts. Autonomous agents do not just occupy the digital world but can also be used as a bridge between the digital world and the real world, connecting to people, external IT systems, and IoT devices. Every autonomous agent is an independent daemon process chasing its own relatively simple goals, but their interaction will create more complex goals and bring more intelligent higher-order agents (ref. 22).

 

Collaborative AI network Horae. Source: Whitepaper 2.0

Blockchain

PlatON uses various modern cryptographic algorithms, including ZKPs, Verifiable Computation (VC), HE, MPC, and Secret Sharing (SS), to implement computational capacity expansion schemes for non-interactive proofs.

Regarding scalability, the VC cryptographic algorithm passes trust off the chain, and contracts must only be computed once off-chain. This process enables all validators to quickly verify the computation’s correctness, improving transaction processing performance while helping PlatON to support trustless computation for complex contracts (ref. 23).

The project claims that the scalability problem of the existing blockchain architecture is primarily because of the tight coupling of consensus and computing. PlatON’s scheme based on verifiable computing utilizes cryptographic algorithms to weaken the endogenous binding relationship of consensus and computing, thereby fundamentally decoupling them.

Consensus Mechanism

PlatON uses the Concurrent Byzantine Fault Tolerance (CBFT) consensus mechanism. The project claims that CBFT is a three-phase pipelining consensus protocol that produces and verifies batch blocks in parallel, improving the consensus efficiency.

Security Audit

SlowMist has done a security audit. The audit focused on seven significant models, including RPC security, P2P security, cryptographic signature security, transaction models, accounts, virtual machine security, and consensus security. It used static code check to ensure the overall performance after various version upgrades and iterations and the newly released WASM on the Baleyworld testnet. The audit report in Chinese is available here.

 

ROADMAP

The project’s roadmap (available on its website) covers the period from Q4 2018 to Q4 2022. The Whitepaper 2.0 lists several milestones, covering the period from  Q4 2018 to Q2 2023. Some details overlap across the roadmap and milestones, while some details are missing.

 

PlatON 2.0 milestones. Source: Whitepaper 2.0

 

TEAM

The project’s team is skilled in computer science and economics. Some of the team members’ previous accomplishments include founding one of the largest mutual funds in China.

Feng Xiao (ref. 24), Founder, is currently the Vice Chairman and Executive Director of China Wanxiang Holding Co. He also holds a Ph.D. in Economics from China Nankai University, has over 20 years of experience in the Chinese securities and asset management industry, and founded Bosera Funds, which is one of the first and largest mutual funds in China.

Lilin Sun (ref. 25), Founder and CEO, is a pioneer in the Chinese fintech field and an advocate and sponsor of computational complexity theory such as ZKPs, MPC, HE, and algorithm game theory.

James Qu (ref. 26), CTO, is an IT expert with 20+ years of experience in financial industry firms, including Morgan Stanley and UBS.

Fubiao Xia (ref. 27), Senior Researcher, has a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of Birmingham.

Advisors

Xinjun Liang (ref. 28), Chief Advisor, is the Co-Founder of Fosun Group and a recipient of the Chinese Business Leader of the Year award.

Grigore Rosu (ref. 29), Technical Advisor, has a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of California at San Diego.

General Comments on the Team & Advisors

The project is built by a strong entrepreneurial and technical team. PlatON, in the past, wanted to hire a Blockchain/Smart Contract Developer. 

During our review period, we did not find evidence that the team members have taken part in any previous or current illegal or controversial projects. We did not find evidence of the advisors’ involvement in any controversial projects either.

 

LEGAL AND COMPLIANCE SPECIFICS

Jurisdiction

PlatON, with the legal name “LATTICEX FOUNDATION LIMITED,” is incorporated as a public company limited by guarantee in Singapore (ref. 30). 

The approach by the government of Singapore towards cryptocurrencies has been described as being practical, pragmatic, and tailored. While the government recognizes the social and economic potential of cryptocurrency, it also exercises caution by seeking to identify the involved risks and, where applicable, managing these risks via licensing.

Partnerships

PlatON lists several partners on the homepage, including HashQuark, SlowMist, and Runtime Verification Inc.

 

Some of the partners of PlatON. Source: PlatON

 

PlatON has also secured $50 million after two funding rounds. The first round was led by Hashkey Capital and Youbi Capital, jointly with SNZ Capital, Hash Global Capital, and Fundamental Labs.

Alpine Capital led the second round, and Hash Global Capital with participation from OUE Singapore, a leading Asian insurance asset management institution, and other regional family offices (ref. 31).

Legal Advisors

The project has not appointed legal advisors or team members responsible for legal matters.

KYC & AML

KYC authentication was in place for $LAT reward redemption (ref. 32). The privacy policy implies that KYC processes are being implemented (ref. 33).

Token Classification

$LAT is a utility token. Its utilities are:

  • Clearing and settlement.
  • Network governance.
  • Staking service economy (ref. 34).

 

TOKEN OFFERING

The initial circulating supply of LAT tokens is 10 billion (ref. 35). The total supply is uncapped (ref. 36).

 

Token Allocation. Source: PlatON

 

The project has allocated 15% of the tokens to LatticeX Foundation. The blue paper does not refer to LatticeX Foundation but mentions the PlatON Foundation. It explains that the PlatON Foundation will use its share of the initial allocation to subsidize alternative validators, validators, and the PlatON developer community. Besides, this subsidy will phase out gradually. As a result, alternative validators and validators are expected to have a higher income during this period.

The project details the percentage of tokens allocated across various funding rounds.

Details related to seed prices have not been released.

Lock-up periods will apply to participants in the initial allocation (ref. 37), but no further details have been released.

 

TOKENOMICS

The LAT token supply is not finite. A fixed additional 2.5% issuance of LAT tokens per year is implemented (ref. 38). 

The project has not disclosed how the ecosystem fund will be used.

The lock-up and unlocking are performed in line with the set lockup period, and the amount of the locked-up tokens can not in advance be unlocked (ref. 39).

PlatON has not disclosed what will happen to unsold allocations.

Supply and Demand Dynamics

Token Supply

  • Fixed additional issuances: There is an inflationary fixed 2.5% additional issuance of LAT tokens annually. Besides, additional issuances are done in the additional issuance block (the last block in the last additional period), and 2% of the additional issuance transfers to the reward pool under control by smart contracts (ref. 40).
  • Token unlock: Different token holder categories are subject to varying lock-up periods. It is essential to watch the timelines for such unlocking.

 

Token Demand

  • Staking: Staking has been described as being PlatON Network’s core feature.
  • Utility: $LAT has several utilities in PlatON’s ecosystem. For example, LAT tokens are used as settlement and payment tokens (ref. 41).

 

SOCIAL MEDIA AND VIRALITY

The project is active on Twitter, having 77.4k followers (ref. 42).

The PlatON’s Telegram channel has shown fake activity, and the admin is not active there. The channel at the moment has 43.7k members (ref. 43). Discord appears to be a better option for community-related discussions. At the moment, the Discord channel has 9.8k members.

There are also forums for English and Chinese-speaking members (available here and here).

On LinkedIn, PlatON has 422 followers. No updates have been posted there (ref. 44). The project has a page on Facebook with 930 followers. The page is not active (ref. 45).

Two YouTube channels are associated with PlatON Network, with 133 and 61 subscribers and 21 and 17 uploaded videos, respectively (available here and here).

Several videos featuring PlatON are available on YouTube, e.g.:

 

RISKS TO THE PROJECT

The following list of risks is not an exhaustive one. Some of these risks are internal, and others are external to the project. Some risks may be minor/not materialize.

  • Regulatory/Legal Risks: The occurrence of regulatory inquiries or regulatory actions could restrict or limit the project’s progress. Moreover, evolving or new laws and regulations in certain jurisdictions may negatively affect the project. The project’s ability to comply or not comply with these new laws or regulations could have financial or reputational risks involved.  
  • The volatility of digital assets: In general, volatility in the values of digital assets can be significant, and indirectly, a decrease in the value of digital assets could have a material and adverse effect on PlatON.
  • Unmet expectations: PlatOn is on a mission to build a complex piece of technology. If the project undergoes significant changes and fails to meet user and market expectations, it could negatively affect the value of tokens.
  • Security weaknesses: The project’s technology infrastructure may or may not have unknown bugs or security weaknesses, which may interfere with the use or cause the loss of the tokens.

 

RATINGS

Everything you see in this report is the aggregate result of an extensive research process carried out by a distributed team of researchers and crypto enthusiasts around the world. The process consists of 60 questions divided into three phases. Researchers are called to answer these questions about a project, while providing links or screenshots as evidence to support their answers. For every answer, they also provide a rating from zero to ten. The average of their ratings is detailed below. 

 

Our researchers gave PlatON a final rating of C.

 

 

DISCLAIMER

This Report is for informational purposes only and/or all or any of its content thereof, should not, may not and will not be taken to constitute, either as a whole or in part, any investment advice or recommendation or similar, regulated, or authorized advice, and D-Core by producing, disseminating, giving away, or making available this Report does not, should not, may not and will not be taken to advise on investments, or carry out any similar activity, or any regulated activity or any other authorized activity. D-Core is not authorized by the Financial Conduct Authority or by any other competent EU or elsewhere or otherwise competent authority to carry out any regulated activities and/or any activities within the scope of these authorities’ competence. 

D-Core excludes and disclaims all liability and/or responsibility whatsoever and/or howsoever caused, arising out of any actions, or omissions taken, or made by any authorized and/or other recipient of this Report in reliance on, or arising out of, or in connection with any or all content of this Report. Any authorized and/or other recipient of this Report acknowledges, accepts and agrees that they carry out their own independent research and act in their own sole risk in reading or using any or all information contained in this Report. In any event, recipients of this Report are urged to seek professional advice before making any potential investment decision in relation to the project described herein. Any authorized and/or other recipient of this Report accepts this Disclaimer in full. For the avoidance of doubt, this Disclaimer is binding against any recipient of this Report whatsoever.

 

REFERENCES

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